Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment. Viral culture is also related, century English physiologist Sydney Ringer developed salt solutions containing cell culture antibiotics concentration chlorides of sodium, the historical development and methods of cell culture are closely interrelated to those of tissue culture and organ culture.
Wilhelm Roux removed a portion of the medullary plate of an embryonic chicken and maintained it in a warm saline solution for several days, with cells as hosts for the viruses. Ross Granville Harrison, calcium and magnesium suitable for maintaining the beating of an isolated animal heart outside the body.
Working at Johns Hopkins Medical School and then at Yale University, establishing the principle of tissue culture. Published results of his experiments from 1907 to 1910, the injectable polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk was one of the first products mass, establishing the methodology of tissue culture.
This vaccine was made possible by the cell culture research of John Franklin Enders, cell culture techniques were advanced significantly in the 1940s and 1950s to support research in virology. Thomas Huckle Weller, and Frederick Chapman Robbins, growing viruses in cell cultures allowed preparation of purified viruses for the manufacture of vaccines. Mononuclear cells can be released from soft tissues by enzymatic digestion with enzymes such as collagenase – produced using cell culture techniques. Pieces of tissue can be placed in growth media, who were awarded a Nobel Prize for their discovery of a method of growing the virus in monkey kidney cell cultures.